The most common back problems

Is your back giving you trouble? You’re not alone. Over 80% of the Swiss population experiences lower back pain at least once in their lives. We explain what the most common back problems are and which specialists can help.

14.05.2021 Karin Rechsteiner 5 minutes

Not all back pain is the same. Most people with acute back pain will be pain-free again within a few weeks. However, around 30% of patients develop chronic complaints. 

Non-specific back pain

85% of back pain does not have a clearly identifiable cause. Non-specific pain often doesn’t last long, and goes away on its own.


Pain caused by tension, irritation or tight muscles is due to a functional impairment of the body. Sitting for hours, lack of exercise, poor posture and weak muscles are all causes. To release the tension, you should adjust your habits and focus on strengthening specific muscles.

More information on tension


Lumbago is characterised by sharp pain in the back that occurs out of the blue, usually in the lumbar vertebrae. Due to the pain, those affected have very limited movement. Medication, thermal treatments and active therapies can help.

More information on lumbago


If the pain in the lower back area spreads to the leg, this is often linked to the sciatic nerve. Sciatica is nerve pain that occurs when part of the sciatic nerve gets pinched or irritated – from a herniated disc, for example. Medication and physiotherapy can help alleviate the pain, and sometimes an operation is required. 

Do you need tips for a strong back?

Our health consultation advisors will show you can relieve back pain. They’ll also give you tips to keep your back healthy in everyday life.

Specific back pain

If the pain has an identifiable cause, this is called specific back pain, and it accounts for 15% of all back pain.

Herniated disc 

Tissue leaks out from the inner core of the intervertebral disc through the outer ring and can put pressure on the nerve roots. Depending on the severity, sensory disturbances such as tingling, numbness or even paralysis can occur alongside the pain. Most of the time, an operation can be avoided. In the case of persistent pain or paralysis, a surgical procedure is advisable or perhaps even necessary.

More information on herniated discs


The wearing down of a joint, i.e. damage to the cartilage, causes inflammation, which leads to severe pain and restricted movement. Depending on the severity, it can require physiotherapy, medication, joint injections or an operation.


Osteoporosis causes the bones to degrade. They become porous, unstable and can break. In addition to age, illnesses or medicinal therapies can be the cause. Breaking a bone is often the first symptom. If osteoporosis affects the spine, it can lead to kyphosis and back pain. Medication promotes bone formation or can slow down its degradation.


A spinal curvature can be due to age, or can develop in children and adolescents. The cause of scoliosis in young people is often unknown. Back pain and muscle tension, as well as knee and neck pain, can be caused by the crooked posture. Scoliosis is often harmless. Depending on its severity, cause and age, back exercises, a back support brace or a corrective operation are required.

Ankylosing spondylitis

This chronic rheumatic illness usually occurs in under 40s. It mostly affects the spine and the sacroiliac joints, and is usually noticed due to pain at night and stiffness in the morning. Over time, the intervertebral joints ossify and the spine gets stiffer. The cause is unknown. The goal of treatment is to alleviate the pain and to maintain the spine’s mobility.

Back pain caused by an accident

In a representative survey, 8% of respondents said that an accident or fall was the cause of their back pain.


Whiplash is a sprain in the cervical spine. The injury occurs when the head suddenly bends and hyperextends – in a car or sport accident, for example. Typical symptoms include headaches, muscle tension, concentration and memory problems, dizziness and nausea. The treatment depends on the severity of the injury. Pain medication, muscle relaxants and physiotherapy can be used.

Time to call the doctor?

You can treat many back ailments yourself, and the pain will get better after a short period of time. A medical examination of your back pain is necessary if:

  • The pain persists after four weeks.
  • You experience neurological disturbances such as tingling or paralysis.
  • You have a fever.
  • The pain occurs when at rest, for example when sleeping.
  • You have cancer or a tumour condition.
  • The pain occurs after an accident or a fall.

Recognised specialists

Are you looking for a suitable therapist? With our online search, you can find a recognised specialist in your area.

Specialists for back pain

Sometimes treating back pain by yourself doesn’t work. We explain which specialists can help with back pain.

General practitioners

Your GP is the first port of call for back pain. They will have a detailed discussion with you about your symptoms and the type and duration of the pain. They will assess your general condition, check your reflexes and examine your back. In the best case, your GP can give you a clear diagnosis. Otherwise, they will refer you to a specialist for further examinations. If required, they will prescribe you medication. In some cases, they will also prescribe physiotherapy.


Physiotherapists are experts on movement problems in the body. They help you to regain your ability to move and function. Your physiotherapist will also help you to strengthen the muscles that stabilise your back and guide you through active exercises, incorporating medical aids such as balls or bands. Physiotherapists also work with passive exercises, such as stretching and massaging. The aim of physiotherapy is to alleviate or eliminate pain. For pain that persists, your physiotherapist will help you to manage it as well as possible.

Spine specialists

A spine specialist will explain where your back pain comes from. They first have a detailed discussion with you to find out your entire history of the problem. Then, they examine your back and look at your x-rays. Together with you, a spine specialist will decide if conservative treatment is enough or if an operation can alleviate your symptoms. Most of the time, an operation is not required. However, if this is the case, the specialist will discuss the risks and chances of success with you. They are also the person who will operate on your back. In the best case scenario, you’ll be pain-free afterwards.


Osteopaths are experts in the musculoskeletal system. They stretch, press, move and massage the affected parts of the body to try and alleviate your symptoms. They take a holistic approach and do not just take the skeleton into account during treatment, but also the organs, the tissues and the central and autonomic nervous systems. An osteopath will aim to activate your body’s self-healing powers, and also improve the natural flexibility of your entire body.

More information on osteopathy


Chiropractors are specialists in disorders and pain in the musculoskeletal system, with a focus on the spine. With targeted, fast rotations or movements, chiropractors correct disorders in the spine and joints. It’s not uncommon to hear some cracks while they do this. These are harmless and don’t hurt. Chiropractors release blocked joints and tension. They also provide advice on posture and show you exercises that you can do at home to strengthen your body.

Pain therapist

Pain therapists are doctors who have specialised in pain therapy. They can help chronic back pain through a variety of treatment methods. Pain therapists aim to understand the cause of your pain. Occasionally, they’ll give local injections to alleviate your pain. The goal is to reduce your pain and improve your quality of life.

Good to know: treating back pain is a team effort. The best results are achieved when a team comprising a variety of specialities work together. This includes the specialists mentioned above, but can also include neurologists, rheumatologists and psychologists, for example.

Read more

Herniated disc – what should you do?
Herniated discs can be very painful. Which therapy helps and when is an operation necessary?
May 12, 2021

Help for back pain
Got a twinge in your back? Massage, exercise and medicinal plants can help to relieve the pain. You can find some helpful tips here.
May 14, 2021

Lumbago – sudden-onset lower back pain
Caused by a wrong move and incredibly painful: a lumbago diagnosis. More information on the causes, treatment options and preventive measures.
July 9, 2021