The term sterility refers to unwanted infertility/childlessness.
In contrast, female sterilisation is a reliable and desired method of contraception. It is a medical procedure that results in permanent infertility; attempts to reverse it may be undertaken, but they are frequently unsuccessful. This method is therefore only used after family planning is complete. The procedure requires brief hospitalisation and is sometimes performed immediately following a birth.
Sterilisation requires laparoscopy and anaesthesia. The fallopian tubes are either sealed using heat (electrocoagulation), closed off using a clip or a section of the fallopian tubes is removed. This interrupts the egg cell's path to the uterus. Sperm cells can no longer reach the egg, and pregnancy is therefore no longer possible.